English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy Second Edition - Page 3 - Forum
English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy Second Edition
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:16 PM | Message # 31|
|UNIT12. When ...? and How long ...? For and since |
A. Compare When ...? (+ past simple) and How long ...? (+ present perfect):
A: When did it start raining?
B: It started raining an hour ago/at 1 o'clock.
A: How long has it been raining?
B: It's been raining for an hour/since 1 o'clock.
A: When did Joe and Carol first meet?
B: They first met a long time ago/when they were at school.
A: How long have Joe and Carol known each other?
B: They've known each other for a long time./since they were at school.
B. We use both for and since to say how long something has been happening.
We use for when we say a period of time (two hours, six weeks etc.):
* I've been waiting for two hours.
for two hours
two hours ago -> now
two hours/a week/20 minutes/50 years/five days/a long time/six months/ages
* Sally's been working here for six months. (not 'since six months')
* I haven't seen Tom for three days. (not 'since three days')
We use since when we say the start of a period (8 o'clock, Monday, 1985 etc.):
* I've been waiting since 8 o'clock.
since 8 o'clock
8 o'clock -> now
8 o'clock/1977/Monday/Christmas/12 May/lunchtime/April/they were at school
* Sally's been working here since April. (= from April until now)
* I haven't seen Tom since Monday. (= from Monday until now)
It is possible to leave out for (but not usually in negative sentences):
* They've been married (for) ten years. (with or without for)
* They haven't had a holiday for ten years. (you must use for)
We do not use for + all ... (all day/all my life etc.):
* I've lived here all my life. (not 'for all my life')
C. We say 'It's (a long time/two years etc.) since something happened':
* It's two years since I last saw Joe. (= I haven't seen Joe for two years/the last time I saw Joe was two years ago)
* It's ages since we went to the cinema. (= We haven't been to the cinema for ages)
The question is How long is it since ...?
* How long is it since you last saw Joe? (= When did you last see Joe?)
* How long is it since Mrs Hill died? (= When did Mrs Hill die?)
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:16 PM | Message # 32|
12.1 Write questions with how long and when.
1. It's raining.
(how long?) How long has it been raining?
(when?) When did it start raining?
2. Kate is learning Italian.
3. I know Martin.
4. Bob and Alice are married.
12.2 Read the situations and complete the sentences beginning in the way shown.
1. (It's raining now. It's been raining since lunchtime.) It started raining at lunchtime.
2. (Ann and I are friends. We first met years ago.) We've known each other for years.
3. (Mark is ill. He became ill on Sunday.) He has ---
4. (Mark is ill. He became ill a few days ago.) He has ---
5. (Sarah is married. She's been married for two years.) She got ---
6. (You've got a camera. You bought it ten years ago.) I've ---
7. (Sue has been in France for the last three weeks.) She went ---
8. (You're working in a hotel. You started in June.) I've ---
12.3 Put in for or since.
1. It's been raining since lunchtime.
2. Tom's father has been doing the same job --- 20 years.
3. Have you been learning English ---a long time?
4. Sarah has lived in London --- 1985.
5. --- Christmas, the weather has been quite good.
6. Please hurry up! We've been waiting --- an hour.
7. Kevin has been looking for a job --- he left school.
8. The house is very dirty. We haven't cleaned it --- ages.
9. I haven't had a good meal --- last Tuesday.
12.4 Write Bs sentences using the words in brackets.
1. A: Do you often go on holiday?
B: (no/five years) No, I haven't had a holiday for five years.
2. A: Do you often eat in restaurants?
B: (no/ages) No, I ---
3. A: Do you often see Sarah?
B: (no/about a month) ---
4. A: Do you often go to the cinema?
B: (no/a long time) ---
Now write B's answers again. This time use It's ... since...
5. (1) No, it's five years since I had a holiday.
6. (2) No, it's ---
7. (3) No, ---
8. (4) ---
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:17 PM | Message # 33|
|UNIT 13. Present perfect and past (1) (I have done and I did) |
A. Study this example situation:
Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key. (present perfect)
This means that he doesn't have his key now.
Ten minutes later:
Now Tom has found his key. He has it now.
Has he lost his key? (present perfect)
No, he hasn't. He has found it.
Did he lose his key? (past simple)
Yes, he did.
He lost his key (past simple)
but now he has found it. (present perfect)
The present perfect is a present tense. It always tells us something about now. 'Tom has lost his key' = he doesn't have his key now (see Unit 7).
The past simple tells us only about the past. If somebody says 'Tom lost his key', we don't know whether he has it now or not. We only know that he lost it at some time in the past.
Two more examples:
* Jack grew a beard but now he has shaved it off. (so he doesn't have a beard now)
* They went out after lunch and they've just come back. (so they are back now)
B. Do not use the present perfect if there is no connection with the present (for example, things that happened a long time ago):
* The Chinese invented printing. (not 'have invented')
* How many plays did Shakespeare write? (not 'has Shakespeare written')
* Beethoven was a great composer. (not 'has been')
* Shakespeare wrote many plays.
* My sister is a writer. She has written many books. (she still writes books)
C. We use the present perfect to give new information (see Unit 7). But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple:
* A: Ow! I've burnt myself.
B: How did you do that? (not 'have you done')
A: I picked up a hot dish. (not 'have picked')
* A: Look! Somebody has spilt milk on the carpet.
B: Well, it wasn't me. I didn't do it. (not 'hasn't been ... haven't done')
A: I wonder who it was then. (not 'who it has been')
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:17 PM | Message # 34|
13.1 What has happened in these situations?
1. Jack had a beard. Now he hasn't got a beard. He has shaved off his beard.
2. Linda was here five minutes ago. Mow she's in bed. She ---
3. The temperature was 25 degrees. Now it is only 17. The temperature ---
4. The light was off. Now it is on. Somebody ---
5. The tree was only three metres high. Now it is four. The tree ---
6. The plane was on the runway a few minutes ago. Now it is in the air.
The plane ---
13.2 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
1. 'Where's your key?' 'I don't know. I've lost it.' (lose)
2. I was very tired, so I lay down on the bed and went to sleep. (be)
3. Mary --- to Australia for a while but she's back again now. (go)
4. 'Where's Ken?' 'He --- out. He'll be back in about an hour.' (go)
5. I did German at school but I --- most of it. (forget)
6. I meant to phone Diane last night but I --- (forget)
7. I --- a headache earlier but I feel fine now. (have)
8. Look! There's an ambulance over there. There --- an accident. (be)
9. They're still building the new road. They --- it. (not/finish)
10. 'Is Helen still here?' 'No, she --- out.' (just/go)
11. The police --- three people but later they let them go. (arrest)
12. Ann --- me her address but I'm afraid I --- it. (give, lose)
13. Where's my bike? It --- outside the house. It --- (be, disappear)
14. What do you think of my English? Do you think I ---? (improve)
13.3 Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.
1. Do you know about Sue? _She's given up_ her job. RIGHT
2. The Chinese _have invented_ printing. WRONG: The Chinese invented
3. How many plays _has Shakespeare written?_ ---
4. _Have you read_ any of Shakespeare's plays? ---
5. Aristotle _has been_ a Greek philosopher. ---
6. Ow! _I've cut_ my finger. It's bleeding. ---
7. My grandparents _have got_ married in London. ---
8. Where _have you been born?_ ---
9. Mary isn't at home. _She's gone shopping._ ---
10. Albert Einstein has been the scientist who _has developed_ the theory of relativity. ---
13.4 (Section C) Put the verb into the most suitable form, present perfect or past simple.
1. A: Look! Somebody has split (spill) coffee on the carpet.
B: Well, it wasn't (not/be) me. I didn't do (not/do) it.
2. A: Ben --- (break) his leg.
B: Really? How --- (that/happen)?
A: He --- (fall) off a ladder.
3. A: Your hair looks nice. --- (you/have) a haircut?
A: Who --- (cut) it? --- (you/go) to the hairdresser?
B: No, a friend of mine --- (do) it for me.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:17 PM | Message # 35|
|UNIT 14. Present perfect and past (2) (I have done and I did) |
A. Do not use the present perfect (I have done) when you talk about a finished time (for example, yesterday/ten minutes ago/in 1985/when I was a child). Use a past tense:
* The weather was nice yesterday. (not 'has been nice')
* They arrived ten minutes ago. (not 'have arrived')
* I ate a lot of sweets when I was a child. (not 'have eaten')
* A: Did you see the news on television last night? (not 'Have you seen')
B: No, I went to bed early. (not 'have gone')
Use a past tense to ask When ...? or What time ...?:
* When did they arrive? (not 'have they arrived')
* What time did you finish work?
* Tom has lost his key. He can't get into the house.
Here, we are not thinking of the past action. We are thinking of the present result of the action: Tom doesn't have his key now.
* Tom lost his key yesterday. He couldn't get into the house.
Here, we are thinking of the action in the past. We don't know from this sentence whether Tom has his key now.
B. Compare present perfect and past:
Present perfect (have done)
* I've done a lot of work today.
We use the present perfect for a period of time that continues from the past until now. For example, today, this week, since 1985.
* It hasn't rained this week.
* Have you seen Ann this morning? (it is still morning)
* Have you seen Ann recently?
* I don't know where Ann is. I haven't seen her. (= I haven't seen her recently)
* We've been waiting for an hour. (we are still waiting now)
* Ian lives in London. He has lived there for seven years.
* I have never played golf. (in my life)
The present perfect always has a connection with now. See Units 7-12.
Past simple (did)
* I did a lot of work yesterday.
We use the past simple for a finished time in the past. For example, yesterday, last week, from 1985 to 1991.
* It didn't rain last week.
* Did you see Ann this morning? (it is now afternoon or evening)
* Did you see Ann on Sunday?
* A: Was Ann at the party on Sunday?
B: I don't think so. I didn't see her.
* We waited (or were waiting) for an hour. (we are no longer waiting)
* Ian lived in Scotland for ten years.
Now he lives in London.
* I didn't play golf when I was on holiday last summer.
The past simple tells us only about the past. See Units 5-6.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:18 PM | Message # 36|
14.1 Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.
1. _I've lost_ my key. I can't find it anywhere. RIGHT
2. _Have you seen_ the news on television last night? WRONG: Did you see
3. _I've bought_ a new car. Do you want to see it? ---
4. _I've bought_ a new car last week. ---
5. Where _have you been_ yesterday evening? ---
6. Jenny _has left_ school in 1991. ---
7. I'm looking for Mike. _Have you seen_ him? ---
8. I'm very hungry. _I haven't eaten_ anything today. ---
9. Diane _hasn't been_ at work yesterday. ---
10. When _has this book been_ published? ---
14.2 Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the present perfect or past simple.
1. (it/not/rain/this week) It hasn't rained this week.
2. (the weather/be/cold/recently) The weather ---
3. (it cold/last week) It ---
4. (I not/read/a newspaper yesterday) I ---
5. (I not/read/a newspaper today)
6. (Ann/earn/a lot of money/this year)
7. (she not/earn/so much/last year)
8. (you have/a holiday recently?)
14.3 Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
1. I don't know where Amy is. Have you seen (you/see) her?
2. When I --- (get) home last night, I --- (be) very tired and I --- (go) straight to bed.
3. Your car looks very clean --- (you/wash) it?
4. George --- (not/be) very well last week.
5. Mr Clark --- (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
6. Molly lives in Dublin. She --- (live) there all her life.
7 --- (you/go) to the cinema last night?' 'Yes, but it --- (be) a mistake. The film (be) awful.
8. My grandfather --- (die) 30 years ago. I --- (never/meet) him.
9. I don't know Carol's husband. I --- (never/meet/him).
10. A: Is your father at home?
B: No, I'm afraid he --- (go) out.
A: When exactly --- (he/go) out? B: About ten minutes ago.
11. A: Where do you live?
B: In Boston.
A: How long --- (you/live) there?
B: Five years.
A: Where --- (you/live) before that?
B: In Chicago.
A: And how long --- (you/live) in Chicago?
B: Two years.
14.4 Write sentences about yourself using the ideas in brackets.
1. (something you haven't done today)
I haven't eaten any fruit today.
2. (something you haven't done today)
3. (something you didn't do yesterday)
4. (something you did yesterday evening)
5. (something you haven't done recently)
6. (something you've done a lot recently)
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:18 PM | Message # 37|
|UNIT 15. Past perfect (I had done) |
A. Study this example situation:
Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too but they didn't see each other. Paul went home at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o'clock. So:
When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn't there. He had gone home.
Had gone is the past perfect (simple):
I/we/they/you or he/she/it had (= I'd etc./he'd etc.) gone/seen/finished etc.
The past perfect simple is had + past participle (gone/seen/finished etc.). For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1.
Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past:
* Sarah arrived at the party.
This is the starting point of the story. Then, if we want to talk about things that happened before this time, we use the past perfect (had ... ):
* When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home.
Some more examples:
* When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat.
* Karen didn't want to come to the cinema with us because she had already seen the film.
* At first I thought I'd done the right thing, but I soon realised that I'd made a serious mistake.
* The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn't flown before./He had never flown before.
B. Had done (past perfect) is the past of have done (present perfect). Compare:
* Who is that woman? I've never seen her before.
* We aren't hungry. We've just had lunch.
* The house is dirty. They haven't cleaned it for weeks.
* I didn't know who she was. I'd never seen her before. (= before that time)
* We weren't hungry. We'd just had lunch.
* The house was dirty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks.
C. Compare the past perfect (I had done) and past simple (I did):
* 'Was Tom at the party when you arrived?' 'No, he had already gone home.'
but 'Was Tom there when you arrived?' 'Yes, but he went home soon afterwards.'
* Ann wasn't at home when I phoned. She was in London.
but Ann had just got home when I phoned. She had been in London.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:19 PM | Message # 38|
15.1 Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets.
1. You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there. (she/go/out) She had gone out.
2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before.
3. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come.
(she/arrange/to do something else)
4. You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late.
5. I was very pleased to see tim again after such a long time.
(I/not/see/him for five years)
6. I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry.
15.2 Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in brackets.
1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
(fly) He had never flown before. OR He hadn't flown before.
2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.
(see) I --- before.
3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game.
(play) He ---
4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there (be) We ---
15.3 Use the sentences on the left to complete the paragraphs on the right. These sentences are in the order in which they happened - so (1) happened before (2), (2) before (3) etc. But your paragraph begins with the underlined sentence, so sometimes you need the past perfect.
1. (1) Somebody broke into the office during the night.
(2) _We arrived at work in the morning._
(3) We called the police
We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody had broken into the office during the night. So we ---
2. (1) Ann went out.
(2) _I tried to phone her_ this morning.
(3) There was no answer.
I tried to phone Ann this morning but --- no answer. She --- out.
3. (1) Jim came back from holiday a few days ago.
(2) _I met him the same day._
(3) He looked very well.
I met Jim a few days ago. He --- just --- He ---
4. (1) Kevin wrote to Sally many times.
(2) She never replied to his letters.
(3) _Yesterday he had a phone call from her._
(4) He was very surprised.
Yesterday Kevin --- He --- very surprised. He --- many times but she ---
15.4 Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done etc.) or past simple (I did etc.).
1. 'Was Tom at the party when you arrived?' 'No, he had gone (go) home.'
2. I felt very tire when I got home, so I --- (go) straight to bed.
3. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody --- (go) to bed.
4. Sorry I'm late. The car --- (break) down on my way here.
5. We were driving along the road when we --- (see) a car which. --- (break) down, so we --- (stop) to see if we could help.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:19 PM | Message # 39|
|UNIT 16. Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) |
A. Study this example situation:
Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining but the ground was very wet.
It had been raining.
It was not raining when I looked out of the window; the sun was shining. But it had been raining before. That's why the ground was wet.
Had been ~ing is the past perfect continuous:
I/we/you/they had(= I'd etc.) been doing/working/playing etc.
he/she/it had (= he'd etc.) been doing/working/playing etc.
Some more examples:
* When the boys came into the house, their clothes were dirty, their hair was untidy and one of them had a black eye. They'd been fighting.
* I was very tired when I arrived home. I'd been working hard all day.
B. You can say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened:
* Our game of tennis was interrupted. We'd been playing for about half an hour when it started to rain very heavily.
* Ken gave up smoking two years ago. He'd been smoking for 30 years.
C. Had been ~ing (past Perfect continuous) is the past of have been ~ing (present perfect continuous). Compare:
present perfect continuous
* I hope the bus comes soon. I've been waiting for 20 minutes. (before now)
* He's out of breath. He has been running.
past perfect continuous
* At last the bus came. I'd been waiting for 20 minutes. (before the bus came)
* He was out of breath. He had been running.
D. Compare had been doing and was doing (past continuous):
* It wasn't raining when we went out. The sun was shining. But it had been raining, so the ground was wet.
* Ann was sitting in an armchair watching television. She was tired because she'd been working very hard.
E. Some verbs (for example, know and want) are not normally used in the continuous:
* We were good friends. We had known each other for years. (not 'had been knowing')
For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:19 PM | Message # 40|
16.1 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.
1. I was very tired when I arrived home.
(I/work/hard all day)
I had been working hard all day.
2. The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired.
3. There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes.
(somebody/smoke/in the room)
4. Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn't know where she was.
5. When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off.
16.2 Read the situations and complete the sentences.
1. We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain.
We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain.
2. I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly realised that I was in the wrong restaurant.
I --- for 20 minutes when I ---
3. Sarah got a job in a factory. Five years later the factory closed down.
At the time the factory ---, Sarah --- there for five years.
4. I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in the audience suddenly began shouting.
The orchestra --- when ---
5. This time make your own sentence:
I began walking along the road. I --- when ---
16.3 Put the verb into the most suitable form, past continuous (I was doing), past perfect (I had done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).
1. It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours were having (have) a party.
2. We were good friends. We had known (know) each other for a long time.
3. John and I went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he --- (walk) so fast.
4. Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She --- (run)
5. When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They --- (eat).
6. When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty but their stomachs were full. They --- (eat).
7. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He --- (look) for his contact lens.
8. When I arrived, Kate --- (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I was late and she --- (wait) for a very long time.
9. I was sad when I sold my car. I --- (have) it for a very long time.
10. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We --- (travel) for more than 24 hours.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:20 PM | Message # 41|
|UNIT 17. Have and have got |
A. Have and have got (= possess, own etc.)
We often use have got rather than have alone. So you can say:
* We've got a new car. or We have a new car.
* Ann has got two sisters. or Ann has two sisters.
We use have got or have for illnesses, pains etc.:
* I've got a headache. or I have a headache.
In questions and negative sentences there are three possible forms:
Have you got any money? I haven't got any money.
Do you have any money? I don't have any money.
Have you any money? (less usual) I haven't any money. (less usual)
Has she got a car? She hasn't got a car.
Does she have a car? She doesn't have a car.
Has she a car? (less usual) She hasn't a car. (less usual)
When have means 'possess' etc., you cannot use continuous forms (is having/are having etc.):
* I have/I've got a headache. (not 'I'm having')
For the past we use had (usually without 'got'):
* Ann had long fair hair when she was a child. (not 'Ann had got')
In past questions and negative sentences we normally use did/didn't:
* Did they have a car when they were living in London?
* I didn't have a watch, so I didn't know the time.
* Ann had long fair hair, didn't she?
B. Have breakfast/have a bath/have a good time etc.
Have (but not 'have got') is also used for many actions and experiences. For example:
have breakfast/dinner/a cup of coffee/a cigarette etc.
have a bath/a shower/a swim/a rest/a party/a holiday/a nice time etc.
have an accident/an experience/a dream etc.
have a look (at something)/a chat (with somebody)
have a baby (= give birth to a baby)
* Goodbye! I hope you have a nice time.
* Mary had a baby recently.
'Have got' is not possible in these expressions. Compare:
* I usually have a sandwich for my lunch. (have = 'eat' - not 'have got')
but * I've got some sandwiches. Would you like one?
In these expressions, have is like other verbs. You can use continuous forms (is having are having etc.) where suitable:
* I had a postcard from Fred this morning. He's on holiday. He says he's having a
wonderful time. (not 'he has a wonderful time')
* The phone rang while we were having dinner. (not 'while we had')
In questions and negative sentences we normally use do/does/did:
* I don't usually have a big breakfast. (not 'I usually haven't')
* What time does Ann have lunch? (not 'has Ann lunch')
* Did you have any difficulty finding somewhere to live?
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:20 PM | Message # 42|
17.1 Write negative sentences with have. Some are present (can't) and some are past (couldn't).
1. I can't make a phone call. (any change)
I haven't got any change.
2. I couldn't read the notice. (my glasses)
I didn't have my glasses.
3. I can't climb up onto the roof. (a ladder)
4. We couldn't visit the museum. (enough time)
5. He couldn't find his way to our house. (a map)
6. She can't pay her bills. (any money)
7. They can't get into the house. (a key)
8. I couldn't take any photographs. (a camera)
17.2 Complete these questions with have. Some are present and some are past.
1. Excuse me, have you got a pen I could borrow?
2. Why are you holding your face like that? --- a toothache?
3. --- a bicycle when you were a child?
4. '--- the time, please?' 'Yes, it's ten past seven.'
5. When you did the exam, --- time to answer all the questions?
6. I need a stamp for this letter. --- one?
7. 'It started to rain while I was walking home.' 'Did it? --- an umbrella?'
17.3 In this exercise you have to write sentences about yourself. Choose four of the following things (or you can choose something else):
a car a bicycle a moped a guitar a computer a camera a driving licence a job a dog/a cat (or another animal)
Have you got these things now? Did you have them ten years ago? Write two sentences each time using I've got/I haven't got and I had/I didn't have.
now ten years ago (or five if you're too young)
1. I've got a car. I didn't have a car.
2. --- ---
3. --- ---
4. --- ---
17.4 Complete these sentences. Use an expression from the list and put the verb into the correct form where necessary.
have lunch have a swim have a nice time have a chat have a cigarette have a rest have a good flight have a baby have a shower have a party have a look
1. I don't eat much during the day. I never _have lunch._
2. David likes to keep fit, so he --- every day.
3. We --- last Saturday. It was great - we invited lots of people.
4. Excuse me, can I --- at your newspaper, please?
5. 'Where's Jim?' 'He --- in his room. He's very tired.'
6. I met Ann in the supermarket yesterday. We stopped and ---.
7. I haven't seen you since you came back from holiday ---?
8. Suzanne --- a few weeks ago. It's her second child.
9. I don't usually smoke but I was feeling very nervous, so I ---.
10. The phone rang but I couldn't answer it because I ---.
11. You meet Tom at the airport. He has just arrived. You say:
Hello, Tom. ---?
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:20 PM | Message # 43|
|UNIT 18. Used to (do) |
A. Study this example situation:
Dennis stopped smoking two years ago. He doesn't smoke any more.
But he used to smoke.
He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.
'He used to smoke' = he smoked regularly for some time in the past, but he doesn't smoke now. He was a smoker, but now he isn't
B. 'Something used to happen' = something happened regularly in the past but no longer happens:
* I used to play tennis a lot but I don't play very often now.
* Diane used to travel a lot. These days she doesn't go away so often.
* 'Do you go to the cinema very often?' 'Not now, but I used to.' (= I used to go ...)
We also use used to... for something that was true but is not true any more:
* This building is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema.
* I used to think he was unfriendly but now I realise he's a very nice person.
* I've started drinking coffee recently. I never used to like it before.
* Janet used to have very long hair when she was a child.
C. 'I used to do something' is past. There is no present form. You cannot say 'I use to do'. To talk about the present, use the present simple (I do).
past: he used to smoke we used to live there used to be
present: he smokes we live there is
* We used to live in a small village but now we live in London.
* There used to be four cinemas in the town. Now there is only one.
D. The normal question form is did (you) use to ...?:
* Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?
The negative form is didn't use to ... (used not to ... is also possible)
* I didn't use to like him. (or I used not to like him.)
E. Compare I used to do and I was doing (see Unit 6):
* I used to watch TV a lot. (= I watched TV regularly in the past, but I no longer do this)
* I was watching TV when the phone rang. (= I was in the middle of watching TV)
F. Do not confuse I used to do and I am used to doing (see Unit 60). The structures and meanings are different:
* I used to live alone. (= I lived alone in the past but I no longer live alone)
* I am used to living alone. (= I live alone and I don't find it strange or new because I've been living alone for some time)
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:21 PM | Message # 44|
18.1 Complete these sentences with use(d) to ... + a suitable verb.
1. Dennis gave up smoking two years ago. He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.
2. Liz --- a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car.
3. We came to live in Manchester a few years ago. We --- in Nottingham.
4. I rarely cat ice cream now but I --- it when I was a child.
5. Jim --- my best friend but we aren't friends any longer.
6. It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work since the new road was opened. It --- more than an hour.
7. There --- a hotel opposite the station but it closed a long time ago
8. When you lived in London, --- to the theatre very often?
18.2 Brian changed his lifestyle. He stopped doing some things and started doing other things:
He stopped studying hard/going to bed early/running three miles e3very morning
He started smoking/going out in the evening/spending a lot of money
Write sentences about Brian with used to and didn't use to.
1. He used to smoke.
2. He didn't use to smoke.
18.3 Compare what Carol said five years ago and what she says today:
FIVE YEARS A GO
I travel a lot,
I play the piano.
I'm very lazy.
I don't like cheese.
I've got a dog.
I'm a hotel receptionist.
I've got lots of friends.
I never read newspapers.
I don't drink tea.
I go to a lot of parties.
I eat lots of cheese now.
I work very hard these days.
I don't know in people these days.
I work in a bookshop now.
I don't go away much these days.
My dog died two years ago.
I read a newspaper every day now.
I haven't been to a party for ages.
I haven't played piano for years.
Tea's great! I like it now.
Now write sentences about bow Carol has changed. Use used to/didn't use to/never used to in the first part of your sentence.
1 She used to travel a lot but she doesn't go away much these days.
2. She used --- but ---
3. --- but ---
4. --- but ---
5. --- but ---
6. --- but ---
7. --- but ---
8. --- but ---
9. --- but ---
10. --- but ---
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:22 PM | Message # 45|
|UNIT 19. Present tenses (I am doing/I do) for the future |
A. Present continuous J am doing) with a future meaning
Study this example situation:
This is Tom's diary for next week.
He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon.
He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning.
He is having dinner with Ann on Friday.
In all these examples, Tom has already decided and arranged to do these things.
Use the present continuous to say what you have already arranged to do. Do not use the present simple J do):
* A: What are you doing on Saturday evening? (not 'what do you do')
B: I'm going to the theatre. (not 'I go')
* A: What time is Cathy arriving tomorrow?
B: At 10.30. I'm meeting her at the station.
* I'm not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere.
* Ian isn't playing football on Saturday. He's hurt his leg.
'(I'm) going to (do)' is also possible in these sentences:
* What are you going to do on Saturday evening?
But the present continuous is more natural for arrangements. See also Unit 20B.
Do not use will to talk about what you have arranged to do:
* What are you doing this evening? (not 'what will you do')
* Alex is getting married next month. (not 'will get')
B. Present simple (I do) with a future meaning
We use the present simple when we talk about timetables, programmes etc. (for example, for public transport, cinemas etc.):
* The train leaves Plymouth at 11.30 and arrives in London at 14.45.
* What time does the film begin?
* It's Wednesday tomorrow.
You can use the present simple for people if their plans are fixed like a timetable:
* I start my new job on Monday.
* What time do you finish work tomorrow?
But the continuous is more usual for personal arrangements:
* What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow? (not 'do you meet')
* What time are you leaving tomorrow?
but * What time does the train leave tomorrow?
* I'm going to the cinema this evening.
but * The film starts at 8.15 (this evening).