English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy Second Edition - Page 4 - Forum
|English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy Second Edition|
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:22 PM | Message # 46|
19.1 A friend of yours is planning to go on holiday soon. You ask her about her plans. Use the words in brackets to make your questions.
1. (where/go?) Where are you going? Scotland.
2. (how long/stay?) Ten days.
3. (when/go?) Next Friday.
4. (go/alone?) No, with a friend of mine.
5. (travel/by car?) No, by train.
6. (where/stay?) In a hotel.
19.2 Tom wants you to visit him but you are very busy. Look at your diary for the next few days and explain to him why you can't come.
TOM: Can you come on Monday evening?
You: Sorry but I'm playing volleyball. (1)
TOM: What about Tuesday evening then?
You: No, not Tuesday I --- (2)
TOM: And Wednesday evening?
YOU: --- (3)
TOM: Well, are you free on Thursday?
YOU: I'm afraid not. --- (4)
19.3 Have you arranged to do anything at these times? Write (true) sentences about yourself.
1. (this evening) I'm going out this evening. or I'm not doing anything this evening. or I don't know what I'm doing this evening.
2. (tomorrow morning) I ---
3. (tomorrow evening)
4. (next Sunday)
5. (choose another day or time)
19.4 Put the verb into the more suitable form, present continuous or present simple.
1. I'm going (go) to the theatre this evening.
2. Does the film begin (the film/begin) at 3.30 or 4.30?
3. We --- (have) a party next Saturday. Would you like to come?
4. The art exhibition --- (open) on 3 May and --- (finish) on 15 July.
5. I --- (not/go) out this evening. I --- (stay) at home.
6. '--- (you/do) anything tomorrow morning?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'
7. We --- (go) to a concert tonight. It --- (begin) at 7.30.
8. You are on the train to London and you ask another passenger:
Excuse me. What time --- (this train/get) to London?
9. You are talking to Ann:
Ann, I --- (go) to town. --- (you/come) with me?
10. Sue --- (come) to see us tomorrow. She --- (travel) by train and her train --- (arrive) at 10.15. I --- (meet) her at the station.
11. I --- (not/use) the car this evening, so you can have it.
12. You and a friend are watching television. You say:
I'm bored with this programme. When --- (it/finish)?
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:26 PM | Message # 47|
|UNIT 20. (I'm) going to (do) |
A. 'I am going to do something' = I have already decided to do it, I intend to do it:
* A: There's a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
B: No, I'm tired. I'm going to have an early night.
* A: I hear Ruth has won some money. What is she going to do with it?
B: She's going to buy a new car.
* A: Have you made the coffee yet?
B: I'm just going to make it. (just = right at this moment)
* This food looks horrible. I'm not going to eat it.
B. I am doing and I am going to do
We normally use I am doing (present continuous) when we say what we have arranged to do for example, arranged to meet somebody, arranged to go somewhere (see Unit 19A):
* What time are you meeting Ann this evening?
* I'm leaving tomorrow. I've got my plane ticket.
'I am going to do something' = I've decided to do it (but perhaps not arranged to do it):
* 'The windows are dirty.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to clean them later.' (= I've decided to clean them but I haven't arranged to clean them)
* I've decided not to stay here any longer. Tomorrow I'm going to look for somewhere else to stay.
Often the difference is very small and either form is possible.
C. You can also say that 'something is going to happen' in the future. For example:
The man can't see where he's walking. There is a hole in front of him.
He is going to fall into the hole.
When we say that 'something is going to happen', the situation now makes us believe this. The man is walking towards the hole now, so he is going to fall into it.
* Look at those black clouds! It's going to rain. (the clouds are there now)
* I feel terrible. I think I'm going to be sick. (I feel terrible now)
D. 'I was going to (do something)' = I intended to do it but didn't do it:
* We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead.
* A: Did Peter do the examination?
B: No, he was going to do it but he changed his mind.
* I was just going to cross the road when somebody shouted 'Stop!'
You can say that something was going to happen (but didn't happen):
* I thought it was going to rain but then the sun came out.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:27 PM | Message # 48|
20.1 Answer the questions. You are going to do all these things but you haven't done them yet. Use going to and the word(s) in brackets.
1. Have you cleaned the car? (tomorrow) Not yet. I'm going to clean it tomorrow.
2. Have you phoned Sally? (later) Not yet. ---
3. Have you done the shopping? (this afternoon) Not yet. ---
4. Have you read the paper? (after dinner) Not ---
5. Have you had dinner? (just) ---
20.2 Write a question with going to for each situation.
1. Your friend has won some money. You ask:
(what/do with it?) What are you going to do with it?
2. Your friend is going to a party tonight. You ask:
3. Your friend has just bought a new table. You ask:
4. Your friend has decided to have a party. You ask:
20.3 Read the situations and complete the dialogues. Use going to.
1. You have decided to write some letters this evening.
FRIEND: Are you going out this evening? You: No, I'm going to write some letters.
2. You are a smoker but you have decided to give it up soon.
FRIEND: Smoking is very bad for you.
YOU: I know. ---
3. You have been offered a job but you have decided not to take it.
FRIEND: I hear you've been offered a job.
YOU: That's right, but ---
4. You are in a restaurant. The food is awful and you've decided to complain.
FRIEND: This food is awful, isn't it?
YOU: Yes, it's disgusting. ---
20.4 What is going to happen in these situations? Use the words in brackets.
1. There are a lot of black clouds in the sky. (rain) It's going to rain.
2. It is 8.30. Jack is leaving his house. He has to be at work at 8.45 but the journey takes 30 minutes. (late) He ---
3. There is a hole in the bottom of the boat. A lot of water is coming in through the hole. (sink) The boat ---
4. Emma is driving. There is very little petrol left in the tank. The nearest petrol station is a long way away. (run out) She ---
20.5 Complete the sentences with was/were going to + one of these verbs:
give up have phone play travel
1. We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead.
2. We --- tennis yesterday but it rained all day.
3. I --- Jim, but I decided to write him a letter instead.
4. When I last saw Tim, he --- his job but in the end he decided not to.
5. We --- a party last week but some of our friends couldn't come, so we cancelled it.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:27 PM | Message # 49|
|UNIT 21. Will/shall (1) |
A. We use I'll (= I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking:
* Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it.
* 'What would you like to drink?' 'I'll have an orange juice, please.'
* 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.'
You cannot use the present simple (I do/I go etc.) in these sentences:
* I'll go and shut the door. (not 'I go and shut')
We often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ...:
* I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to cat.
* I don't think I'll go out tonight. I'm too tired.
In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (= will not):
* I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long.
B. Do not use will to talk about what you have already decided or arranged to do (see Units 19-20):
* I'm going on holiday next Saturday. (not 'I'll go')
* Are you working tomorrow? (not 'will you work')
C. We often use will in these situations:
Offering to do something
* That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it. (not 'I help')
Agreeing to do something
* A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished with it?
B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon. (not 'I give')
Promising to do something
* Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. (not 'I pay')
* I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise.
Asking somebody to do something (Will you ...?)
* Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.
* Will you shut the door, please?
You can use won't to say that somebody refuses to do something:
* I've tried to advise her but she won't listen. (= she refuses to listen)
* The car won't start. I wonder what's wrong with it. (= the car 'refuses' to start)
D. Shall I ...? Shall we ...?
Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I ...?/shall we ...?
We use shall I ...?/shall we ...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions):
* Shall I open the window? (= do you want me to open the window?)
* I've got no money. What shall I do? (= what do you suggest?)
* 'Shall we go?' 'Just a minute. I'm not ready yet.'
* Where shall we go this evening?
Compare shall I ...? and will you ...?:
* Shall I shut the door? (= do you want me to shut it?)
* Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut it)
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:27 PM | Message # 50|
21.1 Complete the sentences with I'll + a suitable verb.
1. I'm too tired to walk home. I think I'll get a taxi.
2. 'It's a bit cold in this room.' 'Is It? --- on the heating then.'
3. 'We haven't got any milk.' 'Oh, haven't we? --- and get some.'
4. 'Do you want me to do the washing-up?' 'No, it's all right. --- it.'
5. 'I don't know how to use this computer.' 'OK, --- you.'
6. 'Would you like tea or coffee? '--- coffee, please.'
7. 'Goodbye! Have a nice holiday.' 'Thanks. --- you a postcard.'
8. Thank you for lending me your camera. --- it back to you on Monday, OK?
9. 'Are you coming with us?' 'No, I think --- here.'
21.2 Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll ... or I don't think I'll ...
1. It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I'll close the window.
2. You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think ---
3. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you but ---
4. You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play. You say: I don't think ---
5. You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go. ---
21.3 Which is correct? (If necessary, study Units 19-20 first.)
1. 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. _I phone (X)/I'll phone (O)_ her now.' (I'll phone is correct)
2. I can't meet you tomorrow afternoon. _I'm playing (O)/I'll play (X)_ tennis. (I'm playing is correct)
3. _'I meet/I'll meet_ you outside the hotel in half an hour, OK?' 'Yes, that's fine.'
4. 'I need some money.' 'OK, _I'm lending/I'll lend_ you some. How much do you need?'
5. _I'm having/I'll have_ a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.
6. 'Remember to buy a newspaper when you go out.' 'OK. _I don't forget/I won't forget.'_
7. What time _does your train leave/will your train leave_ tomorrow?
8. I asked Sue what happened but she _doesn't tell/won't tell_ me.
9. _'Are you doing/Will you do_ anything tomorrow evening?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'
10. I don't want to go out alone. _Do you come/Will you come_ with me?
11. It's a secret between us. I promise _I don't tell/I won't tell_ anybody.
21.4 What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with shall I ...? or shall we ...?
1. You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what. You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?
2. You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask a friend for advice. --- it?
3. It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what. You ask a friend for advice. What ---
4. You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where. You ask him/her. ---
5. You and a friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to walk. You ask him/her ---
6. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don't know what time to phone. You ask him/her ---
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:27 PM | Message # 51|
|A. We do not use will to say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do in the future: |
* Ann is working next week. (not 'Ann will work')
* Are you going to watch television this evening? (not 'will you watch')
For 'I'm working ...' and 'Are you going to ...?, see Units 19-20.
But often, when we talk about the future, we are not talking about what somebody has decided to do. For example:
CHRIS: Do you think Ann will pass the exam?
JOE: Yes, she'll pass easily.
'She'll pass' does not mean 'she has decided to pass'. Joe is saying what he knows or thinks will happen. He is predicting the future.
When we predict a future happening or situation, we use will/won't.
* Jill has been away a long time. When she returns, she'll find a lot of changes.
* 'Where will you be this time next year)' 'I'll be in Japan.'
* That plate is very hot. If you touch it, you'll burn yourself.
* Tom won't pass the examination. He hasn't worked hard enough for it.
* When will you know your exam results?
B. We often use will ('ll) with:
probably: I'll probably be home late this evening.
I expect: I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening.
(I'm) sure: Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.
(I) think: Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?
(I) don't think: I don't think the exam will be very difficult.
I wonder: I wonder what will happen.
After (I) hope, we generally use the present:
* I hope Carol phones this evening.
* I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow.
C. Generally we use will to talk about the future, but sometimes we use will to talk about now. For example:
* Don't phone Ann now. She'll be busy. (= I know she'll be busy now)
D. I shall .../we shall ...
Normally we use shall only with I and we.
You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or we will (we'll):
* I shall be tired this evening. (or I will be ...)
* We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday. (or We will probably go ...)
In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll:
* We'll probably go to Scotland.
The negative of shall is shall not or shan't:
* I shan't be here tomorrow. (or I won't be ...)
Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they:
* She will be very angry. (not 'she shall be')
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:27 PM | Message # 52|
22.1 Which form of the verb is correct (or more natural) in these sentences? The verbs are underlined.
1. Ann isn't free on Saturday. _She'll work (X)/She's working (O)._ (She's working is correct)
2. _I'll go/I'm going_ to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too?
3. I think Jane _will get/is getting_ the job. She has a lot of experience.
4. I can't meet you this evening. A friend of mine _will come/is coming_ to see me.
5. A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays?
B: Yes, _we will go/we are going_ to Italy.
6. There's no need to be afraid of the dog. _It won't hurt/It isn't hurting_ you.
22.2 Complete the sentences with will ('ll) + one of these verbs:
be be come get like look meet pass
1. Don't worry about your exam. I'm sure you I'll pass.
2. Why don't you try on this jacket? It --- nice on you.
3. You must meet George sometime. I think you --- him.
4. It's raining. Don't go out. You --- wet.
5. They've invited me to their house. They --- offended if I don't go.
6. Goodbye. I expect we --- again before long.
7. I've invited Sue to the party but I don't think she ---.
8. I wonder where I --- 20 years from now.
22.3 Put in will ('ll) or won't.
1. Can you wait for me? I won't be very long.
2. There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It --- rain.
3. If you don't eat anything now, you --- be hungry later.
4. I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It --- happen again.
5. I've got some incredible news! You --- never believe what's happened.
6. Don't ask Margaret for advice. She --- know what to do.
22.4 Where will you be at these times? Write true sentences about yourself. Use one of these:
I'll be ... or I expect I'll be... or I'll probably be ... or I don't know where I'll be. or I'm not sure. I might be ... (For might see Unit 30.)
1. (next Monday evening at 7.45) I'll probably be at home.
or I'm not sure. I might be at the cinema.
or I don't know where I'll be. (etc.)
2. (at 5 o'clock tomorrow morning) ---
3. (at 10.30 tomorrow morning) ---
4. (next Saturday afternoon at 4.15) ---
5. (this time next year) ---
22.5 Write questions using do you think ... will ...? + one of these verbs:
be back cost finish get married happen like rain
1. I've bought Mary a present. Do you think she'll like it?
2. The weather doesn't look very good. Do you ---
3. The meeting is still going on. When do you ---
4. My car needs to be repaired. How much ---
5. Sally and David are in love. Do ---
6. 'I'm going out now.' 'OK. What time ---'
7. The future situation is uncertain. What ---
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:29 PM | Message # 53|
|UNIT 23. I will and I'm going to |
A. Future actions
Study the difference between will and going to:
Sue is talking to Helen:
SUE: Let's have a party
HELLEN: That's a great idea. We'll invite lots of people.
will ('ll): We use will when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. The speaker has not decided before. The party is a new idea.
Later that day, Helen meets Dave:
HELLEN: Sue and I have decided to have a party. We're going to invite lots of people.
going to: We use (be) going to when we have already decided to do something. Helen had already decided to Invite lots of people before she spoke to Dave.
* 'George phoned while you were out.' 'OK. I'll phone him back.'
but * 'George phoned while you were out.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to phone him back.'
* 'Ann is in hospital.' 'Oh really? I didn't know. I'll go and visit her.'
but * 'Ann is in hospital.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to visit her tomorrow.'
B. Future happenings and situations (predicting the future)
Sometimes there is not much difference between will and going to. For example, you can say:
* I think the weather will be nice later.
* I think the weather is going to be nice later.
When we say 'something is going to happen', we know (or think) this because of the situation now. For example:
* Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain. (not 'it will rain' - we can see the clouds now)
* I feel terrible. I think I'm going to be sick. (not 'I think I'll be sick' - I feel terrible now)
Do not use will in situations like these. (See also Unit 20C.)
In other situations, it is safer to use will:
* Tom will probably arrive at about 8 o'clock.
* I think Ann will like the present we bought for her.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:29 PM | Message # 54|
23.1 Complete the sentences using will ('ll) or going to.
1. A: Why are you turning on the television?
B: I'm going to watch the news. (I/watch)
2. A: Oh, I've just realised. I haven't got any money.
B: Haven't you? Well, don't worry. --- you some. (I/lend)
3. A: I've got a headache.
B: Have you? Wait there and --- an aspirin for you. (I/get)
4. A: Why are you filling that bucket with water?
B: --- the car. (I/wash)
5. A: I've decided to repaint this room.
B: Oh, have you? What colour --- it? (you/paint)
6. A: Where are you going? Are you going shopping?
B: Yes, --- something for dinner. (I/buy)
7. A: I don't know how to use this camera.
B: It's quite easy. --- you. (I/show)
8. A: What would you like to eat?
B: --- a sandwich, please. (I/have)
9. A: Did you post that letter for me?
B: Oh, I'm sorry. I completely forgot --- it now. (I/do)
10. A: The ceiling in this room doesn't took very safe, does it?
B: No, it looks as if --- down. (it/fall)
11. A: Has George decided what to do when he leaves school?
B: Oh, yes. Everything is planned. --- a holiday for a few weeks and then --- a computer programming course. (he/have, he/do)
23.2 Read the situations and complete the sentences using will ('ll) or going to.
1. The phone rings and you answer. Somebody wants to speak to Jim.
CALLER: Hello. Can I speak to Jim, please?
YOU: Just a moment. --- him. (I/get)
2. It's a nice day. You've decided to sit in the garden. Before going outside, you tell your friend.
YOU: The weather's too nice to stay indoors. --- in the garden. (I/sit)
FRIEND: That's a good idea. I think --- you. (I/join)
3. Your friend is worried because she has lost an important letter.
YOU: Don't worry about the letter. I'm sure --- it. (you/find)
FRIEND: I hope so.
4. There was a job advertised in the paper recently. At first you were interested but then you decided not to apply.
FRIEND: Have you decided what to do about that job that was advertised?
YOU: Yes, --- for it. (I/not/apply)
5. You and a friend come home very late. Other people in the house are asleep. Your friend is noisy.
You: Shhh! Don't make so much noise. --- everybody up. (you/wake)
6. John has to go to the airport to catch a plane tomorrow morning.
JOHN: Ann, I need somebody to take me to the airport tomorrow morning.
ANN: That's no problem. --- you. (I/take) What time is your flight?
ANN: OK. --- at about 9 o'clock then. (we/leave)
Later that day, Joe offers to take John to the airport.
JOE: John, do you want me to take you to the airport?
JOHN: No thanks, Joe. --- me. (Ann/take)
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:30 PM | Message # 55|
|UNIT 24. Will be doing and will have done |
A. Study this example situation:
Kevin loves football and this evening there is a big football match on television. The match begins at 7.30 and ends at 9.15. Paul wants to see Kevin the same evening and wants to know what time to come to his house.
PAUL: Is it all right if I come at about 8.30?
KEVIN: No, I'll be watching the football then.
PAUL: Well, what about 9.30?
KEVIN: Fine. The match will have finished by then.
B. 'I will be doing something' (future continuous) = I will be in the middle of doing something. The football match begins at 7.30 and ends at 9.15. So during this time, for example at 8.30, Kevin will be watching the match. Another example:
* I'm going on holiday on Saturday. This time next week I'll be lying on a beach or
swimming in the sea.
Compare will be (do)ing and will (do):
* Don't phone me between 7 and 8. We'll be having dinner then.
* Let's wait for Mary to arrive and then we'll have dinner.
Compare will be ~ing with other continuous forms:
* At 10 o'clock yesterday, Sally was in her office. She was working. (past)
It's 10 o'clock now. She is in her office. She is working. (present)
At 10 o'clock tomorrow, she will be in her office. She will be working.
C. We also use will be doing in a different way: to talk about complete actions in the future:
* A: If you see Sally, can you ask her to phone me?
B: Sure. I'll be seeing her this evening, so I'll tell her then.
* What time will your friends be arriving tomorrow?
In these examples will be ~ing is similar to the present continuous for the future. (See Unit 19A.)
You can use Will you be ~ing ...? to ask about somebody's plans, especially if you want something or want them to do something. For example:
* A: Will you be passing the post office when you're out?
B: Probably. Why?
A: I need some stamps. Could you get me some?
* A: Will you be using your bicycle this evening?
B: No. Do you want to borrow it?
D. We use will have (done) (future perfect) to say that something will already be complete. Kevin's football match ends at 9.15. So after this time, for example at 9.30, the match will have finished. Some more examples:
* Sally always leaves for work at 8.30 in the morning, so she won't be at home at 9
o'clock. She'll have gone to work.
* We're late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.
Compare will have (done) with other perfect forms:
* Ted and Amy have been married for 24 years. (present perfect)
Next year they will have been married for 25 years.
When their first child was born, they had been married for three years. (past perfect)
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:30 PM | Message # 56|
24.1 Read about Colin. Then you have to tick (V) the sentences which are true. In each group of sentences at least one is true.
Colin goes to work every day. He leaves home at 8 o'clock and arrives at work at about 8.45. He starts work immediately and continues until 12.30 when he has lunch (which takes about half an hour). He starts work again at 1.15 and goes home at exactly 4.30. Every day he follows the same routine and tomorrow will be no exception.
1. At 7.45
a. he'll be leaving the house
b. he'll have left the house
c. he'll be at home (V)
d. he'll be having breakfast (V)
2. At 8.15
a. he'll be leaving the house
b. he'll have left the house
c. he'll have arrived at work
d. he'll be arriving at work
3. At 9.15
a. he'll be working
b. he'll start work
c. he'll have started work
d. he'll be arriving at work
4. At 12.45
a. he'll have lunch
b. he'll behaving lunch
c. he'll have finished his lunch
d. he'll have started his lunch
5. At 4 o'clock
a. he'll have finished work
b. he'll finish work
c. he'll be working
d. he won't have finished work
6. At 4.45
a. he'll leave work
b. he'll be leaving work
c. he'll have left work
d. he'll have arrived home
24.2 Put the verb into the correct form, will be (do)ing or will have (done).
1. Don't phone me between 7 and 8. We'll be having (we/have) dinner then.
2. Phone me after 8 o'clock. --- (we/finish) dinner by then.
3. Tomorrow afternoon we're going to play tennis from 3 o'clock until 4.30. So at 4 o'clock, --- (we/play) tennis.
4. A: Can we meet tomorrow afternoon?
B: Not in the afternoon. --- (I/work).
5. B has to go to a meeting which begins at 10 o'clock. It will last about an hour.
A: Will you be free at 11.30?
B: Yes, --- (the meeting/finish) by that time.
6. Tom is on holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he continues like this, --- (he/spend) all his money before the end of his holiday.
7. Chuck came to Britain from the USA nearly three years ago. Next Monday it will be exactly three years. So on Monday, --- (he/be) in Britain for exactly three years.
8. Do you think --- (you/still/do) the same job in ten years' time?
9. Jane is from New Zealand. She is travelling around Europe at the moment. So far she has travelled about 1,000 miles. By the end of the trip, --- (she/travel) more than 3,000 miles.
10. If you need to contact me, --- (I/stay) at the Lion Hotel until Friday.
11. A: --- (you/see) Laura tomorrow?
B: Yes, probably. Why?
A: I borrowed this book from her. Can you give it back to her?
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:31 PM | Message # 57|
|Unit 25. When I do/When I've done When and if |
A. Study these examples:
A: What time will you phone me tomorrow?
B: I'll phone you when I get home from work.
'I'll phone you when I get home from work' is a sentence with two parts:
the main part: 'I'll phone you'
and the when-part: 'when I get home from work (tomorrow)'
The time in the sentence is future ('tomorrow') but we use a present tense (get) in the when part of the sentence.
We do not use will in the when-part of the sentence:
* We'll go out when it stops raining. (not 'when it will stop')
* When you are in London again, you must come and see us. (not 'when you will be')
* (said to a child) What do you want to be when you grow up? (not 'will grow')
The same thing happens after: while before after as soon as until or till
* I'm going to read a lot of books while I'm on holiday. (not 'while I will be')
* I'm going back home on Sunday. Before I go, I'd like to visit the museum.
* Wait here until (or till) I come back.
B. You can also use the present perfect (have done) after when/after/until/as soon as:
* Can I borrow that book when you've finished it?
* Don't say anything while Ian is here. Wait until he has gone.
It is often possible to use the present simple or the present perfect:
* I'll come as soon as I finish. or I'll come as soon as I've finished.
* You'll feel better after you have something to eat. or You'll feel better after you've had something to eat.
But do not use the present perfect if two things happen together. The present perfect shows that one thing will be complete before the other (so the two things do not happen together).
* When I've phoned Kate, we can have dinner. (= First I'll phone Kate and after that we can have dinner.)
but * When I phone Kate this evening, I'll invite her to the party. (not 'when I've phoned') (In this example, the two things happen together.)
C. After if, we normally use the present simple (if I do/if I see etc.) for the future:
* It's raining hard. We'll get wet if we go out. (not 'if we will go')
* Hurry up! If we don't hurry, we'll be late.
Compare when and if:
We use when for things which are sure to happen:
* I'm going shopping this afternoon. (for sure) When I go shopping, I'll buy some food.
We use if (not 'when') for things that will possibly happen:
* I might go shopping this afternoon. (it's possible) If I go shopping, I'll buy some food.
* If it is raining this evening, I won't go out. (not 'when it is raining')
* Don't worry if I'm late tonight. (not 'when I'm late')
* If they don't come soon, I'm not going to wait. (not 'when they don't come')
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:31 PM | Message # 58|
25.1 Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets. All the sentences are about the future. Use will/won't or the present simple (I see/he plays/it is etc.).
1. I'll phone (phone) you when I get (get) home from work.
2. I want to see Margaret before she --- (go) out.
3. We're going on holiday tomorrow. I --- (tell) you all about it when we --- (come) back.
4. Brian looks very different now. When you --- (see) him again, you --- (not/recognise) him.
5. We must do something soon before it --- (be) too late.
6. I don't want to go without you. I --- (wait) until you --- (be) ready.
7. Sue has applied for the job but she isn't very well qualified for it. I --- (be) surprised if she --- (get) it.
8. I'd like to play tennis tomorrow if the weather --- (be) nice.
9. I'm going out now. If anybody --- (phone) while I --- (be) out, can you take a message?
25.2 Make one sentence from two.
1. You will be in London again. You must come and see us then.
You must come and see us. when you are in London again.
2. I'll find somewhere to live. Then I'll give you my address.
I --- when ---
3. I'll do the shopping. Then I'll come straight back home.
--- after ---
4. It's going to start raining. Let's go home before that.
--- before ---
5. She must apologise to me first. I won't speak to her until then.
--- until ---
25.3 Read the situations and complete the sentences.
1. A friend of yours is going to visit London. You want to know where she is going to stay.
You ask: Where are you going to stay when _you are in London?_
2. A friend of yours is visiting you. She has to go soon but maybe there's time for a cup of tea.
You ask: Would you like a cup of tea before ---?
3. Your friend is reading the newspaper. You'd like it after her.
You ask: Can I have the newspaper when ---?
4. You want to sell your car. Jim is interested in buying it but he hasn't decided yet.
You ask: Can you let me know as soon as ---?
5. There are serious traffic problems in your town but they are building a new road.
You say: I think it will be better when ---.
25.4 Put in when or if.
1. Don't worry _if_ I'm late tonight.
2. Tom might phone while I'm out this evening. --- he does, can you take a message?
3. I'm going to Rome next week. --- I'm there, I hope to visit a friend of mine.
4. I think Jill will get the job. I'll be very surprised --- she doesn't get it.
5. I'm going shopping. --- you want anything, I can get it for you.
6. I'm going away for a few days. I'll phone you --- I get back.
7. I want you to come to the party but --- you don't want to come, that's all right.
8. We can cat at home or, --- you prefer, we can go to a restaurant.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:31 PM | Message # 59|
|Unit 26. Can, could and (be) able to |
A. We use can to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do something.
* We use can + infinitive (can do/can see etc.):
* We can see the lake from our bedroom window.
* Can you speak any foreign languages?
* I can come and see you tomorrow if you like.
The negative is can't (= cannot):
* I'm afraid I can't come to the party on Friday.
B. (Be) able to ... is possible instead of can, but can is more usual:
* Are you able to speak any foreign languages?
But can has only two forms, can (present) and could (past). So sometimes it is necessary to use (be) able to... Compare:
* I can't sleep.
but I haven't been able to sleep recently. (can has no present perfect)
* Tom can come tomorrow.
but Tom might be able to come tomorrow. (can has no infinitive)
C. Could and was able to...
Sometimes could is the past of can. We use could especially with:
see hear smell taste feel remember understand
* When we went into the house, we could smell burning.
* She spoke in a very low voice, but I could understand what she said.
We also use could to say that somebody had the general ability or permission to do something:
* My grandfather could speak five languages.
* We were completely free. We could do what we wanted. (= we were allowed to do ...)
We use could for general ability. But if we are talking about what happened in a particular situation, we use was/were able to... or managed to... (not could):
* The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody was able to escape.
or ... everybody managed to escape. (but not 'could escape')
* They didn't want to come with us at first but we managed to persuade them.
or ... we were able to persuade them. (but not 'could persuade')
* Jack was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody. he had the general ability to beat anybody)
* Jack and Alf had a game of tennis yesterday. Alf played very well but in the end Jack managed to beat him. or ... was able to beat him. (= he managed to beat him in this particular game)
The negative couldn't (could not) is possible in all situations:
* My grandfather couldn't (could not) is possible in all situations
* We tried hard but we couldn't persuade them to come with us.
* Alf played well but he couldn't beat Jack.
|Bakhtiyor||Date: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:32 PM | Message # 60|
26.1 Complete the sentences using can or (be) able to. Use can if possible; otherwise use (be) able to.
1. George has travelled a lot. He _can_ speak four languages.
2. I haven't _been able to_ sleep very well recently.
3. Sandra --- drive but she hasn't got a car.
4. I can't understand Martin. I've never --- understand him.
5. I used to --- stand on my head but I can't do it now.
6. I can't see you on Friday but I --- meet you on Saturday morning.
7. Ask Catherine about your problem. She might --- help you.
26.2 Write sentences about yourself using the ideas in brackets.
1. (something you used to be able to do) I used to be able to sing well.
2. (something you used to be able to do) I used ---
3. (something you would like to be able to do) I'd ---
4. (something you have never been able to do) I've ---
26.3 Complete the sentences with can/can't/could/couldn't + one of these verbs:
come cat hear run sleep wait
1. I'm afraid I _can't come_ to your party next week.
2. When Tim was 16, he was a fast runner. He --- 100 meters in 11 seconds.
3. Are you in a hurry?' 'No, I've got plenty of time. I ---.'
4. I was feeling sick yesterday. I --- anything.
5. Can you speak up a bit? I --- you very well.
6. 'You look tired.' 'Yes, I --- last night,'
26.4 Complete the answers to the questions with was/were able to.
1 A: Did everybody escape from the fire?
B: Yes. Although the fire spread quickly, everybody _was able to escape._
2 A: Did you have difficulty finding Ann's house?
B: Not really. Ann had given us good directions and we ---
3. A: Did you finish your work this afternoon?
B: Yes. There was nobody to disturb me, so ---
4. A: Did the thief get away?
B: Yes. No one realised what was happening and the thief ---
26.5 Complete the sentences using could, couldn't or was/were able to.
1. My grandfather was a very clever man. He _could_ speak five languages.
2. I looked everywhere for the book but I _couldn't_ find it.
3. They didn't want to come with us at first but we _were able to_ persuade them.
4. Laura had hurt her leg and --- walk very well.
5. Sue wasn't at home when I phoned but I --- contact her at her office.
6. I looked very carefully and I --- see a figure in the distance.
7. I wanted to buy some tomatoes. The first shop I went to didn't have any but I --- get some in the next shop.
8. My grandmother loved music. She --- play the piano very well.
9. A girl fell into the river but fortunately we --- rescue her.
10. I had forgotten to bring my camera so I --- take any photographs.