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Forum » Test category » English language forum » Prepare For IELTS (Prepare For IELTS is a book of practice iELTS exams to help)
Prepare For IELTS
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:14 AM | Message # 16
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Part 3. Some Traits of Language
Questions 15 -17
Read the passage headed 'Some Traits of Language1. Then, complete the table below to describe the primary relationship between English and several other languages:
*write T if the relationship is primarily typological
*write C if the relationship is primarily cultural
*write G if the relationship is primarily genetic
Write your answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.

Languages

Relationship



1 Example: English - Dutch


ex G

15. English - Chinese
16. English-American Indian
17. English - Latin
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:14 AM | Message # 17
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Part 3 continued
Questions 18 - 22
The following statements are summaries of some of the information in the reading passage 'Some Traits of Language'. Write True in the box on the Answer Sheet if the statement accurately summarises the information in the text; write False if the statement is an inaccurate summary of information in the text. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: It is said there may be three to four thousand languages spoken in the world today.

ex True.
18. The writer believes that there are probably fewer than five thousand languages spoken in the world today.
19. Each language has a unique medium for sending and receiving: some use the speech organs and others use small distinctive units of sound.
20. A cultural relationship between languages is one where two languages have developed from similar cultures.
21. A genetic relationship between languages does not always imply a typological relationship.
22. Languages that have developed from totally separate ancestors may come to resemble each other to a high degree.
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:16 AM | Message # 18
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Part 3 continued
Questions 18 - 22
The following statements are summaries of some of the information in the reading passage 'Some Traits of Language'. Write True in the box on the Answer Sheet if the statement accurately summarises the information in the text; write False if the statement is an inaccurate summary of information in the text. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: It is said there may be three to four thousand languages spoken in the world today.

ex True.
18. The writer believes that there are probably fewer than five thousand languages spoken in the world today.
19. Each language has a unique medium for sending and receiving: some use the speech organs and others use small distinctive units of sound.
20. A cultural relationship between languages is one where two languages have developed from similar cultures.
21. A genetic relationship between languages does not always imply a typological relationship.
22. Languages that have developed from totally separate ancestors may come to resemble each other to a high degree.
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:16 AM | Message # 19
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Part 4. Optimum Age for Language Learning


Questions 23 - 30
The following passage is a discussion on what age is the best time to learn a language. Several words have been omitted from the text. From the list in the box, select the correct words to complete the text and write them in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. Note that there are more words than there are spaces. Each word can be used once only. The first one has been done as an example.
One aspect of the current debate on language teaching in Australian schools is the example of when is the best time for people to learn a second language.

ex question
Language teachingwithin the education system in Australia has traditionally been concentrated at the secondary school 23 However, many people argue that the
24 age to commence language learning occurs in the early primary years or even in pre-school, when children are able to 25 a language naturally with minimum interference from their mother tongue. Some suggest that early adolescence is
in fact the 26 time to begin to learn a language, given the psychological and
27 problems many high school students face. It should be remembered, however, that many studies have shown that there is 28 age at which one cannot learn a language. At 60 years, 70 years or 80 years you can still learn a language. What will cause the learner the greatest difficulty after puberty is the ...29., The reasons for this problem with accent have been much ....30

debated soonest worst only
emotional technology acquire accent
controversy optimum education examination
level no question age
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:16 AM | Message # 20
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Part 5. Purposes of Language Study: The Australian Senate Inquiry into a National
Language Policy
Read the passage below and answer Questions 31 - 35 on page 18.
The Report of the Inquiry by the Senate of the Australian Parliament into a national
language policy in Australia proposed five purposes for studying a language other than English in Australian schools.
The first point relates to what might be termed the more strictly utilitarian reasons for language learning — the acquisition of fluency in a language other than English for the purpose of direct communication.. The communication in question may be of an informal nature, such as that which occurs during overseas travel, or between members of different groups within Australian society in a variety of social situations. In large measure, however, this language learning objective relates to the role of languages other than English in various fields of employment, such as interpreting and translating, international trade, diplomacy and defence.
Some witnesses to the Inquiry cautioned against placing too heavy an emphasis on utilitarian goals. Professor M. Halliday commented:
I think one should not be too restricted to the practical arguments, which are in a sense dishonest if you say to someone: 'If you spend all this time learning a language you will immediately be able to go and find a use for it'. I think we should have a more rounded picture of the goal.
The Committee agrees that, taken in isolation, practical arguments tend to give an incomplete picture of the value of language learning. In the early school years, for example, utilitarian objectives may well be less important than they are at tertiary level where employment considerations exert a strong influence. Nonetheless, it seems indisputable that practical fluency skills must remain one of the major purposes of the language teaching enterprise, even though the emphasis placed upon these skills may vary considerably according to the educational context.
The second purpose concerns the link between a language and the cultural context from .which it emerges, Many submissions stressed the value of the language learning experience as a means of understanding other cultures, and hence of developing sensitive and tolerant cross-cultural attitudes. This proposition is applied to cultures both within Australia and overseas. Thus, it is argued that language study can contribute in important ways both to harmonious community relationships within Australia, and to an understanding of the cultural values of other countries. It is also contended that language provides the key to major historical cultures, such as the civilizations of classical antiquity which have exerted a profound influence on the Western tradition.
In the course of hearings, Dr David Ingram of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations referred to evidence which lends some empirical support to the claim that the experience of language learning fosters the development of a better understanding of other cultures. The Committee does not find the proposition difficult to accept. It believes, however, that the measure of success achieved is likely to be largely •dependent on the teaching methodology adopted, and the degree of teacher commitment to the goal of cultural awareness and sensitivity.
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:17 AM | Message # 21
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In this regard another submission referred to the contention that second language study produces such desirable characteristics as 'greater tolerance, understanding of others, and acceptance of difference', and went on to observe that:
It is paradoxical that language teachers are totally convinced of the validity of such claims, and yet have very little success in convincing others. While the language teachers believe that it is all about tolerance and understanding, others believe it is all about doing grammar exercises. What is required here is a genuine attempt on the part of language teachers to think through the concepts of attitudinal development and to demonstrate that language learn ing can certainly be an encounter with a new thought system, and hence a powerful means of challenge to complacency in the Tightness of one's own ways.
The third objective relates to the role of language learning in the maintenance of ethnic languages and cultures within Australia. It was argued in submissions that a central element in Australia's policy of multiculturalism is a recognition of the value of the cultural heritages of the different groups within Australian society. Since language and culture are inextricably intertwined, the preservation of cultural heritages necessarily entails the retention of the languages associated with them. In the case of Aboriginal communities this issue takes on a special note of urgency since, in many instances, Aboriginal cultures and languages are on the verge of disappearing completely. The objective in this context, therefore, is not simply to assist in the maintenance of a cultural and linguistic heritage but to aid in preserving that heritage from extinction.
Prominent amongst the purposes of language learning described in submissions was the fourth point: the development of the general cognitive and linguistic capacities of students. The educational outcomes at stake here were described in a number of ways. Professor M. Halliday, for example, spoke of language learning as 'an educational exercise of the first importance, as a development of thinking". Another submission referred to the development of 'a sharpened, more critical awareness of the nature and mechanism of language". Professor Clyne pointed to research conducted particularly in Canada which, he states, 'suggests that bilinguals are superior to monolinguals in logical thought and conceptual development, verbal intelligence and divergent thinking".
Finally, several submissions spoke of the role of language learning in the general development of personality. To a large extent, this objective builds upon and sums up aspects of those already covered. The possibility of direct communication with speakers of another language, for example, offers the opportunity for a broadening of personal horizons. A similar outcome may be expected from the encounter with another culture made possible through language study. Where the language concerned is the child's mother tongue —either the language of a migrant group or an Aboriginal language — an additional factor emerges. In this context, it is argued, language study contributes significantly to the development of individual self-esteem, since the introduction of the language into the school encourages children of that language background to value it and appreciate it as an asset. As a result, their estimation of their family's value as well as of their own worth is likely to rise. In such a case the language program may also aid family cohesion by facilitating the child's communication with family members of non-English-speaking background.
The Committee believes that submissions have been correct in drawing attention to these personal development issues. Naturally, the benefits of language learning in question here are less easy to quantify than those involved in the objectives previously discussed. Nonetheless, the Committee believes that, if appropriately taught, languages can play an important part in assisting young people to establish their identity, and develop their individual and social personalities.
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:17 AM | Message # 22
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Part 5. Purposes of Language Study
Questions 31 - 35
Read the passage headed 'Purposes of Language Study'. Then, read the list of statements below that summarise both the five major purposes of studying languages other than English in Australian schools as well as some of the arguments used in support of the major points. Identify the summaries of the major purposes as listed in the passage and write their corresponding letters in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet to answer Questions 31 - 35.
Question 31 First Purpose of Language Study?
Question 32 Second Purpose of Language Study?
Question 33 Third Purpose of Language Study?
Question 34 Fourth Purpose of Language Study?
Question 35 Fifth Purpose of Language Study?
A. To maintain ethnic languages and cultures as part of Australia's policy of multiculturalism
B. To convince people that language classes teach tolerance and acceptance of other races and cultures *
C. To successfully communicate with people who do not speak English both within Australia and overseas
D. To find employment outside Australia
E. To better appreciate the multicultural nature of Australian society
F. To achieve better professional standing in careers in Australia
G. To develop an understanding of other cultures
H. To develop better cognitive and general linguistic abilities in students
I. To assess whether bilinguals are superior to monolinguals in logical thought and conceptual development
J. To develop the personality of students and a sense of individual identity
K. To prevent Aboriginal languages disappearing completely
L. To enable Australians to travel overseas more easily
This is the end of the reading test
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:17 AM | Message # 23
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Write your answers to tlie reading practice tests in the boxes below.
 You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.

Answer Sheet
; 21
2 22
j 23
4 24
5 25
6 26
7 27
8 28
9 29
10 30
11 31
12 32
13 33
14 34
IS 35
16 36
17 37
18 38
19 39
20 40
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:18 AM | Message # 24
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This page has been deliberately left blank.
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:18 AM | Message # 25
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 Tes t Number 1
 Writing
Writing Task 1
The diagram below comes from a student's lecture notes after hearing a lecture on the factors affecting the learning of English as a second language.
Using the information in the diagram and your own experience, describe the main factors affecting success in learning English as a second language.
*You should spend no more than 15 minutes on this task.
*You should write at least 100 words.
*Do not write in the form of notes.

 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:18 AM | Message # 26
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Writing Task 2
Write an essay on the following topic:
All secondary school students should learn a second language.
*You may use information in the reading passages but do not copy directly from them. You may also use your own knowledge and experience.
*Your essay should be well organised to express your point of view. You should support your opinion with relevant evidence.
*You should spend 30 minutes on this task.
*You should write at least 150 words.
Use This Space For Notes
22
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:18 AM | Message # 27
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Writing Task 1

 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:18 AM | Message # 28
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The answers to the reading questioins and themodel essays for
the writing tasks are in Chapter 7, beginning on page 162:
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:19 AM | Message # 29
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 Test Number 2
 Reading
Part 1. Australia's Exports
Read the passage below and answer Questions 1 - Son pages 28 to 29.
The pattern of change in Australia's export trade reveals, much about the changing focus of the exploitation of Australia's resources. From about 1830 wool replaced the products of whaling and sealing as the dominant in- dustry and the biggest export. Its supremacy in Australia's export trade was unrivalled for over a century, notwithstanding the sharp but temporary decline in the Depression of the 1890s. It was commonly quoted and quite true to say that 'Australia rode on the sheep's back'; wool production reached a peak of 800,000 tonnes in 1971 (Figure 1).
In recent years, however, wool sales have become an area of deep concern in the Australian economy. As can be seen from Figure 2, pastoral exports generally (wool, meat, skins and hides, dairy products), once responsible for over 60 per cent of Australia's export trade, steadily declined as a percentags of £otal exports in the period 1952 to 1976. Since then they have stabilised at a comparatively low level (25 per cent). In contrast, Figure 3 shows that other agricultural exports (wheat, fruit, vegetables, sugar) have remained fairly stable at around 18 per cent of total exports in the last three decades, though 1960, 1964 and 1972 were better years.
Mineral exports from Australia present a different picture. Gold was the first mineral exported from Australia in quantity, and brought great and sudden wealth to the nation's economy. Figure 4 traces gold production from its discovery in New South Wales and Victoria in 1851. In the first decade Australia produced almost half the world's gold supply, about 750,000 kilos. Surprisingly, however, the peak production period for gold from Australia's fields was 1901 to 1910, since which time production has greatly diminished.
From the 1870s Australia began to mine and export other minerals: copper, tin, silver, and above all, coal and iron ore. New discoveries of mineral deposits and the steady introduction of new technology led to a slow but steady growth in mineral exports, with the greatest boom coming after the Second World War. A comparison of Figure 5 with Figures 2 and 3 clearly reveals how, from the 1950s to the 1980s, the value of mineral exports as a percentage of total exports climbed steadily to equal pastoral and agricultural exports, reaching a peak of around 29 per cent in 1976. Although mineral exports have fluctuated somewhat since then, the addition of relative newcomers such as uranium and diamonds has ensured that mineral exports have maintained their importance to the Australian economy into the 1990s.
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-06-10, 11:19 AM | Message # 30
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Parti. Australia's Exports
Questions 1-5
Read the passage headed 'Australia's Exports'. From the information in the passage, identify the five graphs below by writing the correct Figure Number in the box on the Answer Sheet. For example, if you think that the information in the graph in Question 1 matches the facts connected with, say, Figure 2 in the reading passage, you would write thenumber 2 in the box on the Answer Sheet.

Question 1. Figure ?
Question 2. Figure ?


part 1 continued
Question 3. Figure ?

Question 4. Figure ?


Question 5. Figure ?
 
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