Our poll

What is your level of English language?
Total of answers: 18

Statistics


Total online: 1
Guests: 1
Users: 0

Login form

Search

Calendar

«  November 2017  »
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930




Friday, 2017-11-24, 5:00 AM
Welcome Guest | RSS
Learn English Online

Main | Registration | Login
2.4 Pronouns


2.4 Pronouns

Pronouns are a major subclass of nouns. We call them a subclass of nouns because they can sometimes replace a noun in a sentence:   

 

Noun

Pronoun

John got a new job

~He got a new job

Children should watch less television

~They should watch less television 

 

   

In these examples the pronouns have the same reference as the nouns which they replace. In each case, they refer to people, and so we call them PERSONAL PRONOUNS. However, we also include in this group the pronoun it, although this pronoun does not usually refer to a person. There are three personal pronouns, and each has a singular and a plural form:   

 

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

I

we

2nd

you

you

3rd

he/she/it

they

 

   

These pronouns also have another set of forms, which we show here:   

 

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

me

us

2nd

you

you

3rd

him/her/it

them

 

   

The first set of forms (I, you, he...) exemplifies the SUBJECTIVE CASE, and the second set (me, you, him...) exemplifies the OBJECTIVE CASE. The distinction between the two cases relates to how they can be used in sentences. For instance, in our first example above, we say that he can replace John   

 

John got a new job

~He got a new job

 

   

But he cannot replace John in I gave John a new job. Here, we have to use the objective form him: I gave him a new job.   

2.5 Other Types of Pronoun 

As well as personal pronouns, there are many other types, which we summarise here.   

 

Pronoun Type

Members of the Subclass

Example

Possessive

mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs

The white car is mine

Reflexive

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

He injured himself playing football

Reciprocal

each other, one another

They really hate each other

Relative

that, which, who, whose, whom, where, when

The book that you gave me was really boring

Demonstrative

this, that, these, those

This is a new car

Interrogative

who, what, why, where, when, whatever

What did he say to you?

Indefinite

anything, anybody, anyone, something, somebody, someone, nothing, nobody, none, no one

There's something in my shoe

 

   

Case and number distinctions do not apply to all pronoun types. In fact, they apply only to personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, and reflexive pronouns. It is only in these types, too, that gender differences are shown (personal he/she, possessive his/hers, reflexive himself/herself). All other types are unvarying in their form.   

Many of the pronouns listed above also belong to another word class - the class of determiners. They are pronouns when they occur independently, that is, without a noun following them, as in This is a new car. But when a noun follows them - This car is new - they are determiners. We will look at determiners in the next section.   

A major difference between pronouns and nouns generally is that pronouns do not take the or a/an before them. Further, pronouns do not take adjectives before them, except in very restricted constructions involving some indefinite pronouns (a little something, a certain someone).   

While the class of nouns as a whole is an open class, the subclass of pronouns is closed.


Copyright MyCorp © 2017