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Appendix 4 Short forms (I'm / you've / didn't etc.)


Appendix 4

Short forms (I'm / you've / didn't etc.)

 

В разговорном английском мы обычно говорим

`I'm/you've/didn't' и т.д.

(= I am/you have/did not).

Мы также используем эти сокращенные формы в

неофициальном письменном английском

(например, в письмах друзьям). Когда мы

записываем сокращенные формы, мы используем

апостроф (') для пропущенных букв или буквы:

 

I'm = I am you've = you have didn't = did not

 

Сокращенные формы вспомогательных глаголов

am/is/are/have/has/had/will/shall/would

 

'm = am I'm      

's = is / has  he's she's it's   

're = are     you're we're they're

've = have I've    you've we've they've

'll = will / shall I'll he'll she'll it'll you'll we'll they'll

'd = would/ had I'd he'd she'd  you'd we'd they'd

 

's может быть is или has:

- He's ill. (= He is ill.)

- He's gone away. (= He has gone away.)

'd can be would or had:

- I'd see a doctor if I were you. (= I would see)

- I'd never seen her before. (= I had never seen)

 

Мы используем некоторые из этих сокращенных

форм после вопросительных слов (who/what/how и т.д.)

и после that/there/here:

 

who's what's where's that's there's

who'll what'll when's that'll there'll

who'd how's here's

 

- Who's that girl over there? (= who is)

- What's happened? (= what has)

- I think there'll be a lot of people at the party. (= there will)

 

Иногда мы используем сокращенные формы

(особенно 's) после существительного:

 

- John's going out tonight. (= John is going)

- My friend's just got married. (= My friends has just got)

 

Вы не можете употреблять эти сокращенные формы

('m/'s/'ve и т.д.) в конце предложения (потому

что глагол здесь находится в сильной позиции):

 

- `Are you tired?' `Yes, I am.' (а не `yes, I'm.')

- Do you know where he is? (а не `Do you know where he's?')

 

Сокращенные формы вспомогательных глаголов

+ not (isn't/didn't и т.д.):

 

isn't (= is not) haven't (= have not) wouldn't (= would not)

aren't (= are not) hasn't (= has not) shouldn't (= should not)

wasn't (= was not) hadn't (= had not) mightn't (= might not)

weren't (= were not) can't (= cannot) mustn't (= must not)

don't (= do not) couldn't (= could not) needn't (= need not)

doesn't (= does not) won't (= will not) daren't (=dare not)

didn't (= did not) shan't (= shall not)

 

Запомните, что вы можете сказать:

 

he isn't / she isn't / it isn't или he's not / she's not / it's not

you aren't / we aren't / they aren't или you're not/we're not/they're not


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