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Appendix 2 Regular and irregular verbs


Appendix 2

Regular and irregular verbs

1 Правильные глаголы.

Past simple и past participle правильных

глаголов заканчиваются на -ed. Например:

 

infinitive

(основная форма):

clean improve paint carry

 

past simple/

past participle:

cleaned improved painted carried

 

Правила правописания смотрите в Appendix 3.

 

О past simple смотрите Unit 11

Мы используем причастие прошедшего времени past

participle для создания perfect tenses

(have/has/had cleaned) и всех форм страдательного

залога(passive forms).

Смотрите Unit 42,Unit 44:

- I cleaned my room yesterday. (past simple)

- Your English has improved. (present perfect - см. Unit 13,Unit 21)

- The house was dirty. We hadn't cleaned it for a long time. (past perfect -

- см.(Unit 22)

- This door has just been painted. (present perfect passive)

- He was carried out of the room. (past simple passive)

 

Когда past simple и past participle

не заканчиваются на -ed, глагол является

неправильным.

 

2 Следующие глаголы могут быть правильными или

неправильными:

 

infinitive past simple /

past participle

infinitive past simple /

past participle

 

burn burnt или burned

dream dreamt или dreamed

lean leant или leaned

learn learnt или learned

smell smelt или smelled

spell spelt или spelled

spill spilt или spilled

spoil spoilt или spoiled

 

Вы можете сказать:

- I leant out of the window. или I leaned out of the window.

- The dinner has been spoilt. или The dinner has been spoiled.

 

В British English неправильная форма

(burnt/learnt и т.д.) более общепринятая.

 

3 Неправильные глаголы.

У некоторых неправильных глаголов все три формы

(infinitive, past simple и past participle)

одинаковые. Например, hit:

 

- Someone hit me as I came into the room. (past simple)

- I've never hit anyone in my life. (past participle - present perfect)

- George was hit on the head by a stone. (past participle - passive)

 

У некоторых неправильных глаголов форма

past simple такая же, как past participle

(но отличается от infinitive).

Например, tell - told:

 

- He told me to come back the next day. (past simple)

- Have you told anyone about your new job?(past participle - present perfect)

- I was told to come back the next day. (past participle - passive)

 

Другие же неправильные глаголы имеют все

три формы, отличающиеся друг от друга.

Например, break - broke - broken:

 

- He broke his arm in a climbing accident. (past simple)

- Somebody has broken the window. (past participle - present perfect)

- When was the window broken? (past participle - passive)

 

4 Список неправильных глаголов.

 

 

infinitive

 

past

simple

 

past participle

 

infinitive

 

past

simple

 

past

participle

be

beat

become

begin

bend

bet

bite

blow

break

bring

build

burst

buy

catch

choose

come

cost

cut

deal

dig

do

draw

drink

drive

eat

fall

feed

feel

fight

find

fly

forbid

forget

forgive

freeze

get

give

go

grow

hang

have

hear

hide

hit

hold

hurt

keep

know

lay

lead

leave

lend

let

lie

light

was/were

beat

became

began

bent

bet

bit

blew

broke

brought

built

burst

bought

caught

chose

came

cost

cut

dealt

dug

did

drew

drank

drove

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

flew

forbade

forgot

forgave

froze

got

gave

went

grew

hung

had

heard

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knew

laid

led

left

lent

let

lay

lit

been

beaten

become

begun

bent

bet

bitten

blown

broken

brought

built

burst

bought

caught

chosen

come

cost

cut

dealt

dug

done

drawn

drunk

driven

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

flown

forbidden

forgotten

forgiven

frozen

got

given

gone

grown

hung

had

heard

hidden

hit

held

hurt

kept

known

laid

led

left

lent

let

lain

lit

lose

make

mean

meet

pay

put

read[ri:d]

ride

ring

rise

run

say

see

seek

sell

send

set

sew

shake

shine

shoot

show

shrink

shut

sing

sink

sit

sleep

speak

spend

split

spread

spring

stand

steal

stick

sting

stink

strike

swear

sweep

swim

swing

take

teach

tear

tell

think

throw

understand

wake

wear

win

write

lost

made

meant

met

paid

put

read[red]

rode

rang

rose

ran

said

saw

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

shone

shot

showed

shrank

shut

sang

sank

sat

slept

spoke

spent

split

spread

sprang

stood

stole

stuck

stung

stank

struck

swore

swept

swam

swung

took

taught

tore

told

thought

threw

understood

woke

wore

won

wrote

lost

made

meant

met

paid

put

read [red]

ridden

rung

risen

run

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn/sewed

shaken

shone

shot

shown

shrunk

shut

sung

sunk

sat

slept

spoken

spent

split

spread

sprung

stood

stolen

stuck

stung

stunk

struck

sworn

swept

swum

swung

taken

taught

torn

told

thought

thrown

understood

woken

worn

won

written

 


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