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Forum » Test category » English language forum » English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy Second Edition (English Grammar in Use A self-study reference and practi)
English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy Second Edition
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:32 PM | Message # 61
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UNIT 27 Could (do) and could have (done)
A. We use could in a number of ways. Sometimes could is the past of can (see Unit 26C):
* Listen. I can hear something. (now)
* I listened. I could hear something. (past)
But could is not only used in this way. We also in the future (especially to make a suggestion). For example:
* A: What shall we do this evening?
B: We could go to the cinema.
* It's a nice day. We could go for a walk.
* When you go to New York next month, you could stay with Barbara.
* A: If you need money, why don't you ask Karen?
B: Yes, I suppose I could.
Can is also possible in these sentences ('We can go for a walk,' etc.). Could is less sure than can. You must use could (not 'can') when you don't really mean what you say. For example:
* I'm so angry with him. I could kill him! (not 'I can kill him')
B. We also use could to say that something is possible now or in the future:
* The phone is ringing. It could be Tim.
* I don't know when they'll be here. They could arrive at any time.
Can is not possible in these examples (not 'It can be Tim')
In these sentences could is similar to might (see Unit 29-30):
* The phone is ringing. It might be Tim.
C. Compare could (do) and could have (done):
* I'm so tired. I could sleep for a week. (now)
* I was so tired. I could have slept for a week. (past)
Most often, we use could have (done) for things which were possible but did not happen:
* Why did you stay at a hotel when to New York? You could have stayed with Barbara. (= you had opportunity to stay with her but you didn't)
* Jack fell off a ladder yesterday but he's all right. He's lucky - he could have hurt himself badly. (but ha didn't hurt himself)
* The situation was bad but it could have been worse.
D. Sometimes could means 'would be able to...':
* We could go away if we had enough money.(= we would be able to go away)
* I don't know how you work so hard. I couldn't do it.
Could have (done) = would have been able to (do):
* Why didn't Liz apply for the job? She could have got it.
* We could have gone away if we'd had enough money.
* The trip was cancelled last week. Paul couldn't have gone anyway because he was ill. (= he wouldn't have been able to go)
* You did very well to pass the exam. I'm sure I couldn't have passed it. (= I wouldn't have been able to pass it if I had taken it)
@p55
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:32 PM | Message # 62
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UNIT 27 Could (do) and could have (done)
A. We use could in a number of ways. Sometimes could is the past of can (see Unit 26C):
* Listen. I can hear something. (now)
* I listened. I could hear something. (past)
But could is not only used in this way. We also in the future (especially to make a suggestion). For example:
* A: What shall we do this evening?
B: We could go to the cinema.
* It's a nice day. We could go for a walk.
* When you go to New York next month, you could stay with Barbara.
* A: If you need money, why don't you ask Karen?
B: Yes, I suppose I could.
Can is also possible in these sentences ('We can go for a walk,' etc.). Could is less sure than can. You must use could (not 'can') when you don't really mean what you say. For example:
* I'm so angry with him. I could kill him! (not 'I can kill him')
B. We also use could to say that something is possible now or in the future:
* The phone is ringing. It could be Tim.
* I don't know when they'll be here. They could arrive at any time.
Can is not possible in these examples (not 'It can be Tim')
In these sentences could is similar to might (see Unit 29-30):
* The phone is ringing. It might be Tim.
C. Compare could (do) and could have (done):
* I'm so tired. I could sleep for a week. (now)
* I was so tired. I could have slept for a week. (past)
Most often, we use could have (done) for things which were possible but did not happen:
* Why did you stay at a hotel when to New York? You could have stayed with Barbara. (= you had opportunity to stay with her but you didn't)
* Jack fell off a ladder yesterday but he's all right. He's lucky - he could have hurt himself badly. (but ha didn't hurt himself)
* The situation was bad but it could have been worse.
D. Sometimes could means 'would be able to...':
* We could go away if we had enough money.(= we would be able to go away)
* I don't know how you work so hard. I couldn't do it.
Could have (done) = would have been able to (do):
* Why didn't Liz apply for the job? She could have got it.
* We could have gone away if we'd had enough money.
* The trip was cancelled last week. Paul couldn't have gone anyway because he was ill. (= he wouldn't have been able to go)
* You did very well to pass the exam. I'm sure I couldn't have passed it. (= I wouldn't have been able to pass it if I had taken it)
@p55
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:33 PM | Message # 63
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UNIT 28. Must and can't
A. Study this example:
We use must to say that we feel sure something is true:
* You've been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Travelling is tiring and you've been travelling all day, so you must be tired.)
* 'Jim is a hard worker.' 'Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking. He's very lazy.'
* Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day.
We use can't to say that we feel sure something is not possible:
* You've just had lunch. You can't be hungry already. (People are not normally hungry just after eating a meal. You've just eaten, so you can't be hungry.)
* Brian said he would definitely be here before 9.30. It's 10 o'clock now and he's never late. He can't be coming.
* They haven't lived here for very long. They can't know many people.
Study the structure:
I/you/he (etc.) must/can't be (tired/hungry/at work etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) must/can't be (doing/coming/joking etc.) do/go/know/have etc.
I/you/he (etc.) must/can't do/go/know/have etc.
B. For the past we use must have (done) and can't have (done). Study this example:
George is outside his friends' house.
He has rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered.
They must have gone out. (otherwise they would have answered)
* The phone rang but I didn't hear it. I must have been asleep.
* I've lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.
* Jane walked past me without speaking. She can't have seen me.
* Tom walked straight into a wall. He can't have been looking where he was going.
Study the structure:
I/you/he (etc.) must/can't have been (asleep/at work etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) must/can't have been (doing/working etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) must/can't have done /gone/known/had etc.
Couldn't have ... is possible instead of can't have...:
* She couldn't have seen me.
* Tom couldn't have been looking where he was going.
@p57
EXERCISES
28.1 Put in must or can't.
1. You've been travelling all day. You must be very tired.
2. That restaurant --- be very good. It's always full of people.
3. That restaurant --- be very good. It's always empty.
4. You're going on holiday next week. You --- be looking forward to it.
5. It rained every day during their holiday, so they --- have had a very nice time.
6. Congratulations on passing your exam. You --- be very pleased.
7. You got here very quickly. You --- have walked very fast.
8. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they --- be short of money.
28.2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form.
1. I've lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.
2. They haven't lived here for long. They can't know many people.
3. Ted isn't at work today. He must --- ill.
4. Ted wasn't at work last week. He must --- ill.
5. (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It can't --- Mary. She's still at work at this time.
6. Carol knows a lot about films. She must --- to the cinema a lot.
7. Look. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. He must --- out.
8. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn't there any more. Somebody must --- it.
9. Ann was in a very difficult situation. It can't --- easy for her.
10. There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. He must --- us.
28.3 Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with must have and can't have.
1. The phone rang but I didn't hear it. (I/asleep)
_I must have been asleep._
2. Jane walked past me without speaking. (she/see/me)
_She can't have seen me._
3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it/very expensive)
4. I haven't seen the people next door for ages. (they/go away)
5. I can't find my umbrella. (I/leave/it in the restaurant last night)
6. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (the exam/very difficult)
7. She knew everything about our plans. (she/listen/to our conversation)
8. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she/understand/what I said)
9. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I/forget/to turn it off)
10. The lights were red but the car didn't stop. (the driver I see/the red light)
11. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours/have/a party)

@p58
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:34 PM | Message # 64
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UNIT 29. May and might (1)
A. Study this example situation:
You are looking for Bob. Nobody is sure where he is but you get some suggestions.
You: Where's Bob?
He may be in his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)
He might be having lunch. (= perhaps he is having lunch)
Ask Ann. She might know. (= perhaps she knows)
We use may or might to say that something is a possibility. Usually you can use may or might you can say:
* It may be true. or It might be true. (= perhaps it is true)
* She might know. or She may know.
The negative forms are may not and might not (or mightn't):
* It might not be true. (= perhaps it isn't true)
* I'm not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough. (= perhaps I don't have enough)
Study the structure:
I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) be (true/in his office etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) be (doing/working/having etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) do/know/have/want etc.
B. For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done):
* A: I wonder why Kay didn't answer the phone.
B: She may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep)
* A: I can't find my bag anywhere.
B: You might have left it in the shop. (= perhaps you left it in the shop)
* A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn't at the meeting.
B: She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn't know)
* A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday.
B: He may not have been feeling well. (= perhaps he wasn't feeling well)
Study the structure:
I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) have been (asleep/at home etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) have been (doing/waiting etc.)
I/you/he (etc.) may/might (not) have done/known/had/seen etc.
C. Sometimes could has a similar meaning to may and might:
* The phone's ringing. It could be Tim. (= it may/might be Tim)
* You could have left your bag in the shop. (= you may/might have left it...)
But couldn't (negative) is different from may not and might not. Compare:
* She was too far away, so she couldn't have seen you. (= it is not possible that she saw you)
* A: I wonder why she didn't say hello.
B: She might not have seen you. (= perhaps she didn't see you; perhaps she did)
@p59
 
BakhtiyorDate: Sunday, 2012-05-27, 2:34 PM | Message # 65
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EXERCISES
29.1 Write these sentences in a different way using may or might.
1. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. _She might be in her office._
2. Perhaps Margaret is busy.
3. Perhaps she is working.
4. Perhaps she wants to be alone.
5. Perhaps she was ill yesterday.
6. Perhaps she went home early.
7. Perhaps she had to go home early.
8. Perhaps she was working yesterday.
In sentences 9-11 use may not or might not.
9. Perhaps she doesn't want to see me.
10. Perhaps she isn't working today.
11. Perhaps she wasn't feeling well yesterday.
29.2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form.
1. 'Where's Bob?' 'I'm not sure. He might _be having_ lunch.'
2. 'Who is that man with Ann?' 'I'm not sure. It might --- her brother.'
3. 'Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?' 'I'm not sure. It might --- her brother.'
4. 'Why are those people waiting in the street?' 'I don't know. They might --- for a bus.'
5. 'Shall I buy this book for Tim?' 'You'd better not. He might already --- it.'
29.3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. Use may or might.
1. I can't find George anywhere. I wonder where he is.
a (he/go/shopping) He may have gone shopping.
b (he/play/tennis) He might be playing tennis.
2. I'm looking for Helen. Do you know where she is?
a (she/watch/TV/in her room)
b (she/go/out)
3. I can't find my umbrella. Have you seen it?
a (it/be/in the car)
b (you/leave/in the restaurant last night)
4. Why didn't Tom answer the doorbell? I'm sure he was in the house at the time.
a (he/be/in the bath)
b (he/not/hear/the bell)
29.4 Complete the sentences using might not or couldn't.
1. A: Do you think she saw you?
B: No, she was too far away. _She couldn't have seen me._
2. A: I wonder why she didn't say hello. Perhaps she didn't see me.
B: That's possible. _She might not have seen you._
3. A: I wonder why Ann didn't come to the party. Perhaps she wasn't invited.
B: Yes, it's possible. She ---
4. A: Tom loves parties. I'm sure he would have come to the party if he'd been invited.
B: I agree. He ---
5. A: I wonder how the fire started. Do you think it was an accident?
B: No, the police say it ---
6. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident.
B: Well, the police aren't sure. They say it ---

@p60
 
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