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Infinitive or -ing?(3) - be afraid, need, help Unit 58

Unit 58

Infinitive or -ing?(3) - be afraid, need, help


(a) Be afraid to do и be afraid of -ing


I am afraid to do something = Я не хочу

что-то делать, поскольку это небезопасно или

результат действия мне нежелателен:


- The streets in this city are not safe at night. Many people are afraid

to go out alone. (= они не хотят выходить в одиночку,

потому что это опасно)

- She was afraid to tell her parents that she had broken the neighbour's

window. (=она не хотела говорить об этом родителям,

потому что они рассердятся на нее)


I am afraid of something happening =

возможность, что случится нечто нежелательное:


- We walked along the path very carefully because it was icy and we were

afraid of falling. (not `afraid to fall')

- I don't like dogs. I'm always afraid of being bitten.

(not `afraid to be bitten')


Итак, you are afraid to do something, потому

что you are afraid of something happening

в качестве результата. Сравните:


- The boys were afraid to play football in the garden because they were

afraid of breaking a window.

- I was afraid to stay in the sun because I was afraid of getting burnt.


(b) Need to do и need -ing


I need to do something = мне надо что-то сделать:


- I need to take more exercise.

- He needs to work harder.

- I don't need to come to the meeting, do I?


Need -ing = необходимость делать что-то

(употребляется поэтому в passive):


- The batteries in this radio need changing.

(= необходимость замены)

- This jacket is rather dirty. It needs cleaning.

(= необходимость чистки)

- Do you think the grass needs cutting?

(= необходимость стрижки)


(c) Help


За help следует инфинитив с to или без:


- Everybody helped (to) clean up after the party.

- Can somebody help me (to) move this table?


Существует выражение `can't help doing something.'

I can't help doing something = Я не cмог

удержаться, чтобы не сделать этого:


- I tried to be serious but I couldn't help laughing.

- I'm sorry I broke the glass. Someone pushed me and

I couldn't help dropping it.

- He is stupid but it's not his fault. He can't help being stupid.


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