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Modal verbs Unit 32

Unit 32

Must and have to

(a) Когда мы говорим о необходимости сделать

что-либо, то используем must (do) и

have to(do). Часто между ними нет разницы:


- You must (или have to) have a passport to visit most foreign countries.


Однако, иногда существует разница между must

и have to. С помощью must говорящий выражаетсобственное
мнение, и говорит о том, что именно
ОН считает необходимым:


- You must help your sister.

- He must not smoke so much.

- He must be at home now.

- The book is not on the shelf. Jean must be reading it now.

- It is six o'clock. She must have come home.


С помощью have to говорящий сообщает не

собственное мнение, а объективные факты.


- I have a terrible toothache.

I have to go to the dentist.

Ей необходимо сходить к

стоматологу.Посмотрите на

ее щеку.


- We are to meet at 5 o'clock.

Обязательство, но оно

результат предыдущего



- I can't meet you on Friday. I have to work.


(b) Must можно использовать только в форме

настоящего времени.

Must нельзя использовать в будущего времени -

с помощью must можно говорить о будущем времени.



- We must help her in her work.


Have to может употребляться во всех формах.



- I had to go to hospital. (past)

- She has to rewrite her composition. (infinitive) - (Present simple)

- Have you ever had to go to hospital? (present perfect)


Заметим, что мы используем do/does/did c have to

в вопросах настоящего и прошедшего времени, а

также в отрицательных предложениях:


- What do I have to do get a driving license? (а не 'have I to do')

- Why did you have to go to hospital? (а не 'had you to do')

(c) Must't и don't have to имеют совершенно

разный смысл. 'You must't do something'

означает:'Надо, чтобы Вы этого не делали':


- You mustn't go there.

- You must not do such things.

- He mustn't leave the room for a while.

- You must not tell anyone what I said.



См. также Unit 33a.


'You don't have to do something' означает:

'Нет необходимости делать это; в этом нет нужды':


- I don't have to wear a suit to work but I usually do.

- You don't have to borrow this book from the library. I'll give it to you.


(d) Вместо have to можно использовать have got to.

Можно сказать:


- He have to go right now. или - He has got to go right now.

- He have to sell his house. или - He has got to sell his house.









- - - - - - - - - - - - -

I was to meet him

Was she to....

They weren't to

I had to go there

Did you have....

He did not have



We must go now

Must you go there

I am to meet her

She isn't to go...

Are they to come

She has do a...

Do you have to do

We don't have to do





- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

I'll have to see him

W'll she have to

They won't have to

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